The textile industry ‘finish’ refers to the aesthetic and functional characteristics of a fabric met after all processing and production operations are done. The complete fabric should show properties that significantly differ from the original raw material depending on what any fabric finishing machine employs treatments and finishing processes. Therefore, what are the typical treatment processes and fabric finishing?
TYPES OF TREATMENT PROCESSES AND FABRIC FINISHING
Most textile manufacturers use a range of treatment and finishing processes to attain various fabric finishes, for example:
- Mending and Burling
Before the finishing process, textiles are usually rough on the edges, with loose knots and threads that need to be smoothed and removed. Therefore, various burling, scouring and mending processes may rid the fabric of imperfections depending on the type of fabric.
- Washing and drying
Once the fabric is repaired and smoothed, it is washed in various chemicals, for example, bleaching to whiten and brighten. Scouring uses heat and chemical detergents to remove impurities left behind from the manufacturing process. Textiles can be dried using heat and air during the finishing process to ensure no moisture remains in the material. Since fabrics are of different kinds, there is a specialized equipment to dry and monitor the various conditions required.
Textiles require stabilization after washing to ensure consistency and structural integrity. Calendering is often used and entails using heated pressure rollers to condense fibres in the material. Different surface finishes are made by using different rollers depending on the kind of fabric.
- Coating and Glazing
Textiles are treated with various glazes and coating, which enhance the appearance of the fabric, alter specific characteristics of the material (change in texture) and add new properties to the fabric (UV resistance).
TYPES OF FABRIC FINISHES
There are various types of fabric finishes once the textile is treated and finished:
- Texture- Texture can range from coarse to soft
- Firmness- Firmness will vary from firm to soft
- Weight- Weight will vary from heavy to light
- Colourfastness- Colourfastness will range from strong to weak
- Resistance- Resistance includes water, fire, UV resistance etc., and it will range from high to low. The properties will depend on the intended use of the textile.
Textiles can have technical finishes such as:
- Antibacterial- it hinders the growth of stench-causing bacteria
- Chemical resistance- it reduces damage caused by chemical compounds
- Fire-resistant or retardant- it minimizes the risk of fire spreading or starting
- Anti-static- It inhibits the buildup of static charges
- UV resistant- it can withstand UV radiation exposure without degrading or damage
If you intend to get into the textile industry, you need to figure out what piece of fabric you need and the kind of finish you want a particular garment to have. To obtain perfection, you will need to know the appropriate equipment that you will get to meet your needs.
Otherwise, a fabric finishing machine is crucial to improve the quality of any garments. You will need machines with high production speed that uses low energy and efficient in production.