Two Four Digital
The news is by your side.

5 Essential Cybersecurity Terms Every Internet User Should Understand

A DDoS attack floods a server with traffic, causing it to shut down. It is costly and disruptive to businesses.

Encryption scrambles data to an unreadable format accessible only to authorized users or systems. This helps to protect sensitive information from hackers and other unauthorized users.


Malware, short for malicious software, is an invasive program hackers create to steal data, damage or destroy computers and computer systems. Malware examples include viruses, worms, Trojans, spyware, adware, and ransomware. Recent malware assaults have resulted in massive data leaks.

Malware refers to harmful software that can cause damage to a computer system, compromise private information, or steal sensitive data. This can manifest in various forms, such as viruses, worms, backdoors, and spyware.

A data breach is an incident in which malicious actors successfully gain unauthorized access to a system that stores personal, financial, or other confidential information. This access can be used to commit various cybercrimes, such as identity theft and financial fraud.

Authentication is the process of verifying the identity of a person or device. Authentication can be achieved through multiple factors, such as passwords and biometrics.

A denial-of-service attack is a cyberattack in which a network is overwhelmed by an artificial flood of traffic to deprive its target(s) of service. Some DDoS attacks have even led to prolonged shutdowns of primary online services.

Typically, firms concentrate on preventative tactics to avoid breaches. Businesses feel they are safe by protecting the perimeter. However, some sophisticated spyware will ultimately infiltrate your network. As a result, it is critical to implement systems that monitor and detect malware that has escaped perimeter defenses continuously. Multiple layers of protection and high-level network visibility and intelligence are required for adequate sophisticated malware defense.


Viruses are pieces of software that have malicious intent. One of the cybersecurity terms to know is viruses. It can cause various problems, including stealing data and disrupting computer systems. They can also be spread through phishing emails and websites that imitate legitimate ones. A virus can be classified by its structure, how it spreads, and whether it has an envelope. Examples of viruses include worms, ransomware, and rootkits.

Cybersecurity is the set of practices and tools used to protect a network and devices from threats. Multiple layers of cybersecurity are essential so that even if one fails, the others will kick in. This is called defense-in-depth.

A firewall creates a virtual boundary around a network and stops viruses, worms, and hackers from entering the system. A gateway is an intersection of networks that uses different transmission protocols to convert information from one format to another. An IP address is a string of unique numbers that identifies devices on a network. A DHCP server automatically assigns IP addresses to devices connecting to the network.


Trojans are malicious programs that appear harmless and then infiltrate the system, taking over without users or IT administrators noticing. Trojan malware can take various actions, including data deletion, censorship, spying, crashing systems, and stealing personal information. They may be introduced through email attachments or as a payload with freeware or software downloaded online.

Hackers exploit vulnerabilities in computer systems and networks to gain unauthorized access. They can be cybercriminals (black hat hackers) or cybersecurity professionals who test the security of a system to discover weaknesses and prevent attacks.


Backdoors are hidden methods for bypassing security measures and gaining access to computer systems and networks. They are a vulnerability that allows cybercriminals to enter and steal data, install malware, and cause other damage.

A malicious hacker creates the most common type of backdoor. They use malware programs like RAT (Remote Access Trojan) to create backdoors that allow them to steal data and take control of the system.

A backdoor can also be found in software and hardware. For example, a built-in backdoor could be included in the code of a piece of hardware during the manufacturing process. It might also be included in the code of a piece of software and remain undetected by the developer or manufacturer until cybercriminals weaponize it.

A cryptographic backdoor is another kind of backdoor that allows unauthorized users to access encrypted data. It uses math formulas that are easy to perform in one direction but impossible to calculate in reverse without special knowledge.


A blacklist lists entities, people, behavior, apps, algorithms, and more blocked from a system or asset. It is the opposite of a whitelist, which allows everything by default. Blacklists are a fast, low-effort way to identify and block unwanted traffic from a system. However, they require constant updating because countless malware types and disguise tricks are discovered daily.

A cyber attack happens every 39 seconds, costing the world $6 trillion in damage. That’s why cybersecurity is so vital to the future of our digital economy.

Information security (InfoSec) is the set of practices and systems to protect sensitive data. It encompasses threat prevention, incident response, data encryption, and more.

An IP address is a sequence of numbers that uniquely identifies a device on a network. An IP packet is a unit of data that carries information between networks using different transmission protocols.

Comments are closed.